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English words whose meaning is changed
by a difference in stress accent

"Combat" If you accent it on COM, it's a noun. If you accent it on BAT, it's a verb.
Here are additional examples of words which change from noun to verb because of the position of their accent.
If you accent the wrong syllable, you may not be understood.
The noun is accented on the first syllable; the verb on the second syllable.
Some people don't follow these rules. This adds greatly to the confusion.
We will add to these as we encounter more.

copyright 2014 Second Language, LLC. Unauthorized reproduction prohibited
NounVerb
ABstractabstRACT
ACcentacCENT
ADdictadDICT
ADdressadDRESS
ANnexanNEX
ALlyalLY
ATtributeatTRIBute
COMbatcomBAT
COMmunecomMUNE
COMpactcomPACT
COMpoundcomPOUND
COMpresscomPRESS
CONductconDUCT
CONfinesconFINES
CONflictconFLICT
CONscriptconSCRIPT
CONsortconSORT
CONtractconTRACT
CONtrastconTRAST
CONverseconVERSE
CONvertconVERT
CONvictconVICT
DEcreasedeCREASE
DEsertdeSERT
DEtaildeTAIL
DIScarddisCARD
DISchargedisCHARGE
ENvelopeenVELope
EScortesCORT
EXploitexPLOIT
EXportexPORT
EXtractexTRACT
FInancefiNANCE
FRAgmentfragMENT
IMpactimPACT
IMprintimPRINT
INcreaseinCREASE
INsertinSERT
INsultinSULT
MANdatemanDATE
OBjectobJECT
OVERchargeoverCHARGE
OVERworkoverWORK
PERmitperMIT
PERvertperVERT
PREfixpreFIX
PREsentpreSENT
PROceedsproCEEDS
PROcessproCESS
PROduceproDUCE
PROgressproGRESS
PROjectproJECT
PROtestproTEST
RAMpageramPAGE
REBelreBEL
REcapreCAP
REcallreCALL
REcordreCORD
REfillreFILL
REfundreFUND
REfuserefUSE
REjectreJECT
REplayrePLAY
SUBjectsubJECT
SURveysurVEY
SUSpectsusPECT
TORmenttorMENT
TRANSfertransFER
TRANSplanttransPLANT
TRANSporttransPORT
UPsetupSET
  
AdjectiveVerb
ABsentabSENT
FREquentfreQUENT
PERfectperFECT
  
AdjectiveNoun
inVALidINvalid
miNUTE (my noot)MInute (min it)
comPLEXCOMplex
  
[Pronouncing English]
English Lessons with Practice Exercises: for the ESL student or teacher

By Gabriel F. Gargiulo

This book is the result of questions posed in class by students of ESL. Each chapter is a short lesson on some aspect of American English.
You can use this book alone, or with a teacher. ESL teachers can use this book for some of their lessons.
Inspect/Order English Lessons with Practice Exercises

[American English Expressions book]
American English Expressions — Recent Expressions — Business and Office Expressions

By Gabriel F. Gargiulo



Here are 158 American English expressions. Many of these expressions are hard to understand for people who were not born in the United States. These are modern expressions that you won’t find in the English grammar books. People actually talk this way. Learning these expressions will help you understand what Americans are saying in real life and on television shows.
You will find expressions like: Bucket List, Butt dialing, Deal-breaker, Diddly, Game-changer, Get on the bandwagon, Hitting on, I’m like totally there, Jumped the shark, Kitchen sink, Man up, Meh, Pie hole, Poster child, Red State, Reverse 911, Senior moment, Staycation, There’s no there there, Toast, 1040, 1099, 401(K), 529, At the end of the day, Bad optics, Big whoop, Blue state,
Inspect/Order American English Expressions

[English Pronunciation ]
Clear Speech Student's book: Pronunciation and Listening Comprehension in American English

By Judy B. Gilbert


This is a good course. Not too much, not too little. A highly successful and innovative pronunciation course.
Inspect/Order Clear Speech Student's book: Pronunciation and Listening Comprehension in American English


If this isn't enough, there are words whose different meanings are distinguished by a change in sound of one of the letters. (Voicing). copyright 2014 Second Language, LLC. Unauthorized reproduction prohibited

Abuse, with the S sounding like S in See, is a noun.
Abuse, with the S sounding like Z in Zebra, is a verb.

Close, with the S sounding like S in See, is an adjective.
Close, with the S sounding like Z in Zebra, is a verb.

Excuse, with the S sounding like S in See, is a noun.
Excuse, with the S sounding like Z in Zebra, is a verb.

House, with the S sounding like S in See, is a noun.
House, with the S sounding like Z in Zebra, is a verb.

Use, with the S sounding like S in See, is a noun.
Use, with the S sounding like Z in Zebra, is a verb.

I used to smoke, with the S in used sounding like S in See, means "I smoked in the past. I don't now".
I used a hammer, with the S sounding like Z in Zebra, means "I did something by means of a hammer".

It gets worse. There are words which have different meanings shown by different pronunciations.

Advocate, rhyming with rate, is a verb
Advocate, rhyming with hit, is a noun

Appropriate, rhyming with rate, is a verb
Appropriate, rhyming with hit, is an adjective

Approximate, rhyming with rate, is a verb
Approximate, rhyming with hit, is an adjective

Articulate, rhyming with rate, is a verb
Articulate, rhyming with hit, is an adjective and a noun

Associate, rhyming with rate, is a verb
Associate, rhyming with hit, is an adjective and a noun

Bass, with the a of cat, is a type of fish
Bass, with the a of face, means "with a low frequency tone"

Bow, with the o of bone, is used with a violin, also for shooting arrows
Bow, rhymes with cow, is a verb - what an actor does after a performance, what a dog does

Deliberate, rhyming with rate, is a verb
Deliberate, rhyming with hit, is an adjective

Does, rhymes with fuzz, is a verb
Does, rhymes with rose, = female deer

Dove, with the o of bone, is a verb, the past tense of dive
Dove, rhymes with love, = bird

Duplicate, rhyming with rate, is a verb
Duplicate, rhyming with hit, is an adjective and a noun

Elaborate, rhyming with rate, is a verb
Elaborate, rhyming with hit, is an adjective

Estimate, rhyming with rate, is a verb
Estimate, rhyming with hit, is an adjective

Graduate, rhyming with rate, is a verb
Graduate, rhyming with hit, is a noun

Live, with the i of hit, is a verb
Live, with the i of five, is an adjective

Moderate, rhyming with rate, is a verb
Moderate, rhyming with hit, is an adjective

Multiply, rhyming with by is a verb
Multiply, rhyming with Lee, is an adverb

Polish, written with a capital P and the O sounding like O in bOne, is an adjective of nationality.
polish, written with a small p and the O sounding like O in hOt, is a verb or a noun.

Separate, rhyming with rate, is a verb
Separate, rhyming with hit, is an adjective

Tear, rhymes with where, is a verb
Tear, rhymes with near, is a noun

Wind, with the i of five, is a verb
Wind, with the i of hit, is a noun

Wound, with au of found, (ah-oo) is a verb
Wound, with the oo of food, is a noun copyright 2014 Second Language, LLC. Unauthorized reproduction prohibited